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SI.No.Correct opt.Answer
1-25noteMaths questions
264pulse-chase experiment is a valuable technique used in biochemistry and molecular biology to study cellular processes over time.
273(3) Spike protein
282The most common initial step to separate water-soluble proteins from insoluble cellular material is (2) Differential centrifugation.
294The pH at which the net charge of a protein becomes zero under an electrical field at room temperature is known as the Isoelectric point.
301The microscope that converts slight differences in the refractive index and cell density into easily observed differences in light intensity is known as a Phase contrast microscope.
311Histone H1 has a high lysine content.
3233) South western blotting
331Huntington’s disease is caused due to expanded microsatellite repeats.
343The disease associated with the Philadelphia chromosome is (3) Chronic myelogenous leukemia.
352The classification system that groups organisms together based on the similarity of their observable characteristics is known as the Phenetic system (2).
363The correct answer is (3) IgG. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the only class of immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta, providing passive immunity to the fetus and neonate. It also plays a key role in neutralizing toxins and activating the complement system.
371Blood group antigens differ in their (1) Glycosylation pattern.
383The newly synthesized strand of DNA would be read in the 5′ to 3′ direction as TAGGGA. This is because DNA replication is antiparallel, meaning the new strand is synthesized in the opposite direction of the template strand. Also, in DNA, adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G).
392(2) Small randomly mating population
401Methylase enzymes produced by bacteria mainly play a role in the modification of DNA.
414The phenomenon where yeast consumes more glucose in anaerobic conditions than in the presence of an aerobic environment is known as the Pasteur effect.
423Lynch syndrome affects the (3) Mismatch repair system.
431A nematode, or roundworm Ascaris, is an example of an animal that has a pseudocoel.
444(4) Presence of placoid scales
452The method first developed for gene mapping in bacteria was Conjugation in 1946, which was discovered by Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum in 1946. This method involves the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells through direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
462The gold standard method used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection is (2) RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction).
482The rate of oxygen production is enhanced when there is operation of noncyclic photophosphorylation. This is because oxygen is a byproduct of the water-splitting process that occurs during noncyclic photophosphorylation in photosynthesis. Cyclic photophosphorylation does not involve the splitting of water, so it does not produce oxygen.
491The primary acceptor of CO2 in C4 plants is (1) Phosphoenolpyruvate.
503The prokaryotic microorganism which fixes atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association under aerobic condition in aquatic ferns is (3) Anabaena.
513Histidine is not a vitamin. It is an essential amino acid.
523A cloning vector may not contain (3) Promoter. A promoter is not necessary for a cloning vector, as its main function is to initiate transcription of a particular gene, which is not required in the process of cloning.
533The lambda phage genome has a length of approximately 48,500 base pairs.
5433) 6 bp
551Type I Diabetes Mellitus is an autoimmune disease.
564In Pinus, the gametophyte does not represent an independent free-living generation.
573(1) False. Albuminous cells are present in the phloem of gymnosperms.
(2) False. The term “exoscopic” is not typically used to describe embryos. Embryos grow internally, so they could be described as “endoscopic,” but this is not a common term in biology.
(3) True. Gymnosperms are often dioecious, meaning individual plants are either male or female.
(4) False. The term “endoscopic” is not typically used to describe embryos. However, embryos do grow internally.
584Gaucher disease is associated with (4) Lysosomes. It is caused by a deficiency in an enzyme (glucocerebrosidase) that is normally found in lysosomes and is responsible for breaking down a certain type of fat molecule.
591Hematopoietic stem cells are primarily found in (1) Bone marrow.
604The MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) vaccine does not provide lifetime protection. It is typically given in two doses, with the second dose providing increased immunity. However, over time, immunity can decrease and booster shots may be needed.
613The formation of endosperm before fertilization is a characteristic of (3) Gymnosperms.
624Heterospory is not found in Pteridium.
633The diagnostic test used to detect Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is (3) ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay).
641The antibody that can cross the placental barrier is IgG.
651The Trypan Blue Assay is used for (1) Counting of animal cells. It is a dye exclusion method used to determine the number of viable cells present in a cell suspension. It is based on the principle that live cells possess intact cell membranes that exclude certain dyes, such as trypan blue, whereas dead cells do not.
663The correct match between the enzymes and their functions is:
A. Histone acetyl transferase – II. Chromatin remodeling
B. Cyclin dependent kinase – III. Cell cycle regulation
C. α-antitrypsin – IV. Emphysema
D. Topoisomerase – I. DNA replication
673The correct match between the animals and their respective larval stages is:
A. Annelids – II. Trochophore
B. Insects – IV. Caterpillar
C. Molluscs – I. Veliger
D. Cyclostomes – III. Ammocoetes
684The correct matches between the hormones and their functions are:
A. Epinephrine in liver – II. Increased conversion of glycogen to glucose
B. FSH – III. Increase synthesis of estrogen
C. Vasopressin – IV. Reabsorption of water
D. Epinephrine in skeletal muscle – I. Conversion of glycogen to glucose-1 phosphate
692The correct matches between the nitrogenous bases and their deaminated products are:
A. Cytosine – III. Uracil
B. 5-methyl-cytosine – I. Thymine
C. Adenine – IV. Hypoxanthine
D. Guanine – II. Xanthine
701The correct matches between the compounds and their functions are:
A. Dolichol – IV. Sugar carrier
B. Vitamin-K – I. Blood clotting factor
C. Vitamin-E – II. Antioxidant
D. Warfarin – III. Anticoagulant
712The correct matches between cell types and their functions are:
A. Macrophages – II. Phagocytosis
B. B-cells – I. Antibody production
C. Cytotoxic T-cells – IV. Interact with infected host cells
D. Helper T-cells – III. Interact with macrophages and secrete cytokines
724The correct matches between the scientists and their discoveries are:
A. Avery, Macleod and McCarty – III. Chemical basis of heredity
B. Edward Jenner – IV. Vaccine
C. Erwin Chargaff – II. Law of equivalence of bases
D. Semour Benzer – I. Complementation analysis
731Statement I: True. Herbicides are widely used in agriculture to control and eliminate unwanted plants or weeds that compete with crops for resources.
Statement II: True. DCMU (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a herbicide that inhibits photosynthesis by blocking electron flow at the quinone acceptors of photosystem II, effectively competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This disrupts the plant’s ability to produce energy, leading to its death.
741Both statements are correct.
Statement I: In prokaryotes, all types of RNAs (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA) are transcribed by the RNA polymerase holoenzyme, which consists of several polypeptides (two α, one β, one β’, and one σ). Statement II: The start signals on DNA, known as promoters, represent the initial binding site for the RNA polymerase. This is where transcription begins.
752Statement I: False. The glycolytic pathway is not the only route available for the oxidation of sugars in plant cells. Other pathways include the citric acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway.
Statement II: False. The complete oxidation of one glucose-6-phosphate molecule in the pentose phosphate pathway results in the production of 2 NADPH molecules, not 12.
761Both Statement I and Statement II are correct. Telomeres are indeed sequences at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes that help stabilize the chromosome. They also end with multiple repeated sequences, which in humans is in the form of (TTAGGG).
771Both statements are correct. In agarose gel electrophoresis, the concentration of the gel determines the size of the pores. Low concentration gels have larger pores, which allow for the separation of very large molecules. High concentration gels have smaller pores, which are better for separating smaller or large molecules. The size of the pores in the gel determines the size of the molecules that can be separated.
784Statement I is incorrect. Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a higher plant, not cyanobacteria.
Statement II is correct. Mycorrhizal associations help plants absorb nutrients, especially in nutrient-poor or stressful conditions. The fungus increases the surface area for water and nutrient absorption, and in return, the plant provides the fungus with carbohydrates and other organic compounds.
791Both statements are correct.
Statement I: Apoptosis is indeed a genetically regulated process that occurs in specific tissues during development and disease. It is a form of programmed cell death that is essential for the removal of unnecessary or damaged cells.
Statement II: The regulation of apoptosis is complex and involves intracellular signals generated from many sources, including secreted cells, cell surface proteins, hormones, and environmental stresses. These signals can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the specific circumstances.
801Both Statement I and Statement II are correct. In C4 plants, carbon dioxide is first fixed in the mesophyll cells to form a four-carbon compound (malate or aspartate). This compound is then transported to the bundle sheath cells, where it undergoes decarboxylation to release CO2. This CO2 is then used in the Calvin cycle to produce carbohydrates
811The correct order for the establishment of mammalian cell culture is:
1. Separation of cells from tissue by mechanical or enzymatic method (C)
2. Culture of primary cells (A)
3. Subculture of primary cells (B)
4. Culture of secondary cells (D)
5. Subculture of secondary cells (E)
correct option is C, A, B, D, E
821The steps involved in bacterial translation are:
1. Activation of amino acids
2. Aminoacylation of tRNA
3. Initiation of polypeptide synthesis
4. Peptide bond formation
5. Termination of polypeptide synthesis
correct option A, C, B, D, E
833The correct sequence of steps involved in prophase I of meiosis is:
A. Chromosome condensation
D. Pairing of homologous chromosomes
C. Formation of tetrad of bivalents (four strand)
E. Genetic recombination
B. Terminalization of chiasmata
correct option is A, D, C, E, B
843The correct order of these discoveries, from earliest to latest, is:
B. Charles Darwin published a book on the Origin of Species (1859)
A. Gregor Johann Mendel discovered the basic principles of Genetics (1865-1866, published)
D. Friedrich Miescher identified Nuclein (1869)
E. Oswald Avery identified DNA as the transforming principle (1944)
C. Watson and Crick deciphered DNA structure (1953)
correct option B, A, D, E, C
851The order of action of these complexes in the cell cycle is:
1. G1 cyclin CDK Complex (A)
2. S Phase cyclin CDK Complex (C)
3. MPF (D)
4. APC-cdc 20 (E)
5. APC-cdh 1 (B)
correct option A, C, D, E , B
861The correct order of a signal transduction pathway is:
A. Binding of ligands to cell surface receptor
C. Generation of intracellular second messenger
D. Intracellular signaling cascade
E. Effector response
B. Termination of signal
So, the correct answer is (1) A, C, D, E, B.
871A and B only
The nucleoplasmic index, which represents the ratio of the nuclear volume to the cytoplasmic volume, depends upon both the nuclear volume (A) and the cell volume (B). The nuclear mass (C) and cytoplasmic mass (D) can also influence this index, as they can affect the respective volumes. The number of centrioles (E) does not directly influence the nucleoplasmic index.
884D and E only. The inhibitory neurotransmitters from the list are Glycine (D) and GABA (E)
893B and C only. RNA and protein on which expression of gene depends.
903A and C only. The features of cancer cells are: A. Rapid cell growth and division C. Loss of normal control of cell division
914A and D only. The methods to measure apoptosis in-vitro in mammalian cell culture are: A. MTT assay D. Crystal violet assay
922C and E only. The tumor suppressor genes from the list are PTEN and p53.
933A and C only
The organizations involved in the production of Covaxin in India are A. Department of Biotechnology (DBT), C. Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology (ICMR-NIV), and D. Bharat Biotech.
941Both Assertion A and Reason R are correct, and Reason R is the correct explanation for Assertion A. Bateson and Punett found that linked genes do not obey Mendel’s law of independent assortment because they tend to be inherited together. This is reflected in the dihybrid test cross ratio for closely linked genes, which produces 50% parental and 50% recombinant types of progeny, rather than the 9:3:3:1 ratio predicted by Mendel’s law.
952Assertion A is true: Oligosaccharides with unique structures are indeed components of a variety of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the outer surface of plasma membranes. Reason R is also true: The influenza virus does infect animal cells by binding to the cell surface glycoproteins as the first step of infection. However, Reason R is not the correct explanation for Assertion A. The presence of oligosaccharides in glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface is not because of the influenza virus’s method of infection. These structures serve many functions, including cell-cell recognition and signaling, not just as binding sites for viruses.
961Both Assertion A and Reason R are correct, and Reason R is the correct explanation for Assertion A. In Sanger’s method of DNA sequencing, each type of dideoxynucleotide is linked to a different fluorescent molecule. As the DNA fragments pass through a detector, the color of the fluorescence indicates which nucleotide is at the end of each fragment. This allows the DNA sequence to be determined.
972Both Assertion A and Reason R are true, but Reason R is not the correct explanation for Assertion A. Assertion A is correct because polyploid species of common bread wheat have indeed evolved through hybridization and chromosome doubling, often induced by colchicine. Reason R is also true as colchicine can induce gigantism in allopolyploid species of bread wheat. However, Reason R does not explain why polyploid species evolved through hybridization and chromosome doubling. The gigantism is a result of the polyploidy, not the cause of it.
982Assertion A is true. Reason R is also true, but it does not correctly explain Assertion.
Assertion A is true. The lacZ gene in pUC cloning vectors is used as a selectable marker. When a DNA fragment is inserted into the lacZ gene, it disrupts the gene’s function, a process known as insertional inactivation. This allows for the selection of recombinants.
Reason R is also true, but it does not correctly explain Assertion A. IPTG does induce the lacZ gene, but it’s not directly related to the selection of recombinants through insertional inactivation. Instead, IPTG is used in the Blue-white screening process, where it induces the lacZ gene to produce β-galactosidase, which turns X-gal in the medium to a blue color. If the lacZ gene is disrupted by insertional inactivation, it won’t produce β-galactosidase, and the colonies will remain white. This allows for the identification of recombinants.
994The correct matches between List-I (Group of Organisms/Plants) and List-II (Grouped as) are:
A. Bacteria and Blue-Green Algae – III. Monera
B. Bryophytes and Pteridophytes – IV. Embryophyta
C. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms – I. Tracheophyta
D. Angiosperms and Gymnosperms – II. Spermatophyta
1002The correct answer is (2) A-III, B-IV, C-II, D-I. Rauwolfia serpentina is used for treating high blood pressure (III), Vinca rosea is used in cancer treatment (IV), Schizyzium aromaticum is used in toothpaste (II), and Azadirachta indica is used as an insect repellent (I).

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