Solved Biotechnology previous year question (JNUCEEB/ GAT B) 2023

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10011148The poliovirus has the highest genomic mutation rate among the viruses listed. This is because it is an RNA virus, and RNA viruses generally have higher mutation rates than DNA viruses due to the lack of proofreading mechanisms during replication.
9911109This is expected in the case of a non-competitive inhibitor. Non-competitive inhibitors bind to an enzyme at a site other than the active site, and their binding is not influenced by the concentration of the substrate. This means that the degree of inhibition they cause is independent of the substrate concentration.
9811119Molybdenum plays an important role in biological nitrogen fixation.
9711140Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) can be removed from industrial exhaust using a device called a scrubber. The scrubber sprays a mixture of water and limestone into the exhaust. The SO2 reacts with the limestone to form gypsum, which can be safely disposed of. Electrostatic precipitators and catalytic converters are more commonly used to remove particulates and other pollutants, like nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide, from exhaust gases.
9611097To calculate the amount of protein needed, you can use the formula:
Molarity (M) = moles/Liter
First, convert the volume of the solution from microliters (µL) to liters (L): 100 µL = 0.0001 L
Then, rearrange the molarity formula to solve for moles:
Moles = Molarity x Volume = 15 µM x 0.0001 L = 0.0015 x 10-6 moles
Next, convert moles to grams using the molecular weight of the protein:
Grams = Moles x Molecular weight = 0.0015 x 10-6 moles x 95,000 g/mole =0.0001425g = 0.1425 mg
So, you will need approximately 0.1425 milligrams of protein to make 100 microliters of a 15 micromolar solution of a 95 kilodalton protein.
9511066Antibiotics are generally not considered primary metabolites. Primary metabolites are directly involved in normal growth, development, and reproduction. Antibiotics, on the other hand, are secondary metabolites, which are not directly involved in these processes but often have important ecological functions.
9411088The approximate length of the open reading frame coding for a 55 kilo Dalton bacterial protein will be 1500 nucleotides.
This is because the average molecular weight of an amino acid is approximately 110 Daltons, and each amino acid is coded by 3 nucleotides (a codon).
Therefore, a 55 kilo Dalton protein would have about 500 amino acids,
and thus would require about 1500 nucleotides to code for it.
9311084No, that’s not correct, cybrid are the resultant of spontaneous fusion of protoplasts obtained from common callus culture.
A cybrid is a cell hybrid resulting from the fusion of a cell or protoplast(usually a somatic cell) with a cytoplast, which is an enucleated cell (a cell from which the nucleus has been removed). This process is not spontaneous and does not involve callus culture. The purpose of creating a cybrid is to combine the cytoplasmic elements of one cell (including organelles like mitochondria or chloroplasts) with the nuclear genetic material of another cell.
9211070The multinucleated cell present in the bones of the human body is the osteoclast.
9111092The structurally independent three-dimensional unit associated with a particular functional role is a domain.
9011087Both Statement I and Statement II are true.
Yes, that’s correct. Orthologs are genes in different species that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation. They usually retain the same function in the course of evolution. Paralogs, on the other hand, are genes related by duplication within a genome. Paralogs can develop new functions, as they are not subjected to the same functional constraints as the original gene.
Yes, both orthologs and paralogs are types of homologous sequences. Homologous sequences are genes or proteins that share a common ancestry. Orthologs are homologous sequences in different species that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation. Paralogs, on the other hand, are homologous sequences within the same species that arose by gene duplication.
8911114The colony-forming unit (CFU) count of the original culture can be calculated by reversing the dilution process.
First, convert the 100 microliters used for plating to milliliters: 100 microliters = 0.1 mL.
Next, calculate the CFU/mL in the diluted sample: 180 CFU / 0.1 mL = 1800 CFU/mL.
Finally, reverse the dilution to find the CFU/mL in the original culture: 1800 CFU/mL x 106 = 1.8 x 109 CFU/mL.
8811138The study of various atmospheric parameters is called Meteorology.
8711067Smallpox. This disease was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980, thanks to a global immunization campaign.
8611150Dengue virus is an example of an enveloped virus.
8511126Microglial cells in the human brain represent the class of innate immune cells known as macrophages.
Microglial cells are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. They are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), acting as the first and main form of active immune defense in the CNS. Microglia are constantly scanning their environment for pathogens and damaged neurons. When they detect such threats, they can respond by engulfing and destroying the pathogens or cellular debris, a characteristic behavior of macrophages. Therefore, microglial cells represent the class of innate immune cells known as macrophages in the human brain.
8411061The bacterium generally used in plant genetic engineering is Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
8311078The statement that is not correct about mutagenesis is “creation of point mutation at a specific position in the gene of interest“. Chemical mutagenesis is a random process and does not allow for specific point mutations to be created at desired locations within a gene.
8211090Both Statement I and Statement II are true
Yes, both statements are correct. Protein-ligand docking is a method used in computational biology to predict the orientation and relative position of a ligand (small molecule) when it binds to a protein receptor to form a stable complex. AutoDock and LUDI are both software programs used for protein-ligand docking. They use different algorithms and scoring functions to predict how and where the ligand will bind to the protein.
8111065The phase in which bacterial cells adapt to growth conditions and are metabolically active but not dividing is known as the lag phase.
In the log phase, bacteria are actively dividing and this is where the population increases exponentially. In the stationary phase, the rate of bacterial growth is equal to the rate of bacterial death, so the population size remains constant. In the death phase, the rate of bacterial death exceeds the rate of new bacteria being produced, so the population size decreases.
8011154Silver nitrate (AgNO3) is often used in plant tissue culture to mitigate the effects of ethylene, a plant hormone that can cause premature aging and inhibit growth. Silver ions from AgNO3 can bind to ethylene receptors in plant cells, preventing ethylene from binding and thus blocking its effects. This allows for better control over plant growth and development in tissue culture.
7911085flower color gene in pisum sativum is the odd one out with respect to pleiotropic gene expression.
7811142The issue of pesticide contamination in carbonated drinks was brought into the limelight by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a non-governmental organization in India. They conducted a study in 2003 and 2006 that found high levels of pesticides in various popular carbonated drinks.
7711149Ribo viruses, also known as RNA viruses, are a group of viruses that generally infect plants. These viruses have RNA as their genetic material and can cause various plant diseases. Rheoviruses, Enteroviruses, Retroviruses on the other hand, are a type of virus that primarily infect animals and humans, not plants.
7611122The electron transport chain is present in the inner membrane of the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotic cells, it is present in the plasma membrane.
7511116The fermentation of fruit juice to vinegar involves the use of acetic acid bacteria. These bacteria convert ethanol, a product of the initial fermentation process by yeast, into acetic acid to produce vinegar.
7411108List one contains coenzymes, and list two contains the vitamins or nutrients that are precursors to those coenzymes. Here’s the matching:
1. Coenzyme A – Pantothenic acid
2. FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide) – Riboflavin
3. Thymine Pyrophosphate – Vitamin B1
4. NAD+ (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) – Niacin
7311157The pH indicator used for animal cell culture media is Phenol Red. It changes color in response to changes in pH, allowing researchers to monitor the health of the cell culture by observing the color of the media.
7211144The linear flow velocity of the liquid does not affect the operation of a trickling filter. The other factors – organic loading, hydraulic flow rates, and temperature of the water and air – do have an impact on the performance of a trickling filter.
7111100The reason the protein expressed in E. coli was not functionally active could be due to the lack of post-translational modifications. E. coli, being a prokaryote, does not have the machinery to carry out many post-translational modifications such as glycosylation, which are common in eukaryotes and often crucial for protein function. On the other hand, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, being eukaryotic, can perform these modifications, resulting in a functionally active protein
The protein might require glycosylation for its function for several reasons. One reason could be that glycosylation can affect the protein’s stability, folding, and transport. It can also play a role in cell-cell interactions.
Phosphorylation, another post-translational modification, can also be crucial for protein function. It can regulate protein activity, cellular location, and interaction with other proteins.
Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, being eukaryotic, can perform these modifications.
Ubiquitination is a process that marks proteins for degradation. E. coli might not have the necessary machinery for ubiquitination, which could lead to the accumulation of non-functional or misfolded proteins.
In summary, the lack of post-translational modifications such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination in E. coli could be the reason why the protein is not functionally active.
70111121. Alkalase – Bioactive peptides
2. Lipase – Degreasing of leather hides
3. Beta Amylase – Maltose rich syrup
4. Phytase – Animal feed
6911141The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of the quantity of oxygen used by microorganisms while decomposing organic matter under aerobic conditions. If the BOD value is more than 50 parts per million (ppm), it indicates a high level of organic pollution in the water. This high BOD value can deplete the dissolved oxygen (DO)(can be less than 6 ppm) concentration in the water, potentially leading to hypoxic or anoxic conditions can lead to aquatic life death not thriving. However, the exact DO concentration cannot be determined solely from the BOD value, as it depends on various factors such as temperature, salinity, and pressure
6811105Option 4 due to more GC content as these make triple hydrogen bond with each other.
6711063Sterilization of fermentation media with steam is typically performed at a temperature of 121 degrees Celsius (250 degrees Fahrenheit) under a pressure of 15 psi for about 15-20 minutes. This process is known as autoclaving.
6611113The Degree of Reduction (DOR) for the compound CH1.77O0.49N0.24 is calculated using the formula: DOR =valency1 x mass1+…………….
Certainly! Let’s calculate the expression:
[ (1 \times 4) + (1.77 \times 1) + (0.49 \times -2) + (0.24 \times -3) ]
First, perform the multiplications:
[ 4 + 1.77 – 0.98 – 0.72 ]
Now add the results:
[ 4 + 1.77 – 0.98 – 0.72 = 4.07 ]
Therefore, the value of the expression is approximately 4.07.
6511077Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive disease caused by defects in DNA (nucleotide) repair enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for repairing damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. When these enzymes are defective, DNA damage accumulates, leading to the symptoms of the disease, which include sensitivity to sunlight and a high risk of skin cancer.
6411129option 1 is true, both a nd r is correct and a is correct explanation of r
6311155Phytoene is a colorless carotene that is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, which are pigments that give certain plants their color——Golden Rice is a genetically modified variety of rice that produces beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A. The beta-carotene gives the rice grains a golden color, hence the name
DMH (Desi Mustard Hybrid)-11 is a hybrid variety of mustard that has been developed for higher yield and better disease resistance. It is a cross between two different types of mustard plants.—–The Barnase-Barstar system is a model used in molecular biology to study protein-protein interactions
EPSPS stands for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. It is an enzyme involved in the shikimate pathway, which plants and some microorganisms use to synthesize aromatic amino acids. This enzyme is the target of the herbicide glyphosate. Some genetically modified crops have been engineered to be resistant to glyphosate by incorporating a version of EPSPS that is not inhibited by the herbicide—–roundup ready soyabean
cry I ac—-Bt cotton
62110762. It is used to identify expression of microRNAs only . DNA microarrays, also known as DNA chips or biochips, are a type of technology used in molecular biology and genetics. Here are some of their key features:
1. High Throughput: DNA microarrays can analyze thousands of genes simultaneously, making them a high-throughput method for gene expression analysis.
2. Miniaturization: The arrays are small, with each spot containing picomoles (10-12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence.
3. Specificity: Each spot on the array represents a specific gene or sequence, allowing for precise analysis of gene expression.
4. Quantitative: DNA microarrays can provide quantitative data on gene expression levels.
5. Versatility: They can be used for various applications, including gene expression profiling, detection of mutations, and genotyping.
6. Automation: The process of hybridization and scanning can be automated, reducing the chance of human error.
7. Reproducibility: The results obtained from DNA microarrays are highly reproducible.
61110795′-TTTAATTAAA-3′. Type II restriction endonucleases: These are the most commonly used in molecular biology. They recognize specific short palindromic sequences (usually 4-8 base pairs) and cut within or near these sequences. For example, EcoRI recognizes the sequence GAATTC and cuts between the G and the A.
6011101The genome of Hepatitis B, a DNA virus, is unlikely to code for DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. This is because Hepatitis B is a retrovirus, and retroviruses typically carry the gene for RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (also known as reverse transcriptase), not DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
5911089Pileup is the odd one out. Amber, ClustalX, and ClustalW are all bioinformatics software tools used for sequence alignment, while Pileup is a format for summarizing sequence alignment data, not a software tool.
5811131Allergy symptoms are primarily caused by the immune system’s response to an allergen, which involves the release of histamines. Blocking the attachment of IgE antibodies to mast cells can help prevent this response, as it is these antibodies that trigger the release of histamines when they encounter an allergen. Therefore, blocking the attachment of the IgE antibodies to the mast cells can potentially prevent an allergy attack.
5711120Bacteria require vitamins primarily as growth factors.
Vitamins are organic compounds that bacteria need in small amounts for various metabolic processes. They often function as coenzymes or parts of coenzymes, helping to speed up the bacteria’s metabolism. However, vitamins are not typically used as a primary energy source, carbon source, or source of electron donors. Bacteria usually obtain energy and carbon from other organic compounds like carbohydrates, and they obtain electrons from a variety of sources depending on their metabolic pathways.
56111514. Transgenic plant with integration of multiple copies of the transgene: This is generally not preferred as it can lead to gene silencing and unpredictable effects.
1. Transgenic plant with a higher level of transgene expression: This allows for the desired trait to be more pronounced in the plant.
2. Transgenic plant with single copy insertion of the transgene: This reduces the risk of gene silencing and unpredictable effects.
3. Transgenic plant without any pleiotropic effects of the transgene: Pleiotropic effects can lead to unintended changes in the plant, so avoiding these is beneficial.
5511082Kanamycin binds to 30S ribosomal subunit that inhibit translations
Ampicillin works by inhibiting the formation of bacterial cell walls. It binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, causing the inhibition of the transpeptidase enzyme. This leads to cell lysis and death.
Hygromycin B inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 80S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, causing misreading of the mRNA sequence.
Chloramphenicol inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, preventing the addition of new amino acids to the growing peptide chain.
5411153A. Nitrogen—-Macronutrient
B. Sucrose——Carbon source
C. Manganese–Micronutrient
D. Myoinositol–Organic supplement
5311075The structural gene ‘a’ in the Lac Operon is responsible for the 3. conversion of lactose into allolactose. This allolactose then acts as an inducer to remove the repressor protein from the operator site, allowing transcription and translation of the operon’s genes.
5211068Charles Richet was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1913 for his discovery of anaphylaxis(hypersensitivity) , a severe allergic reaction.
5111095Supercoiled plasmid DNA moves faster through an agarose gel during electrophoresis because of its compact structure. The supercoiling makes the DNA more compact, reducing its effective size and allowing it to navigate through the pores in the gel more easily. Linear or single-stranded DNA, being less compact, encounters more resistance as it moves through the gel, slowing its progress. This is why, given the same electric field, supercoiled DNA will travel further than linear or single-stranded DNA.
5011145The UN Conference on Environment and Development is popularly known as the Earth Summit.
4911099To combat a severe viral infection, both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses are typically elicited. The humoral immune response involves B cells that produce antibodies to neutralize the virus. The cell-mediated immune response involves T cells, specifically cytotoxic T cells, which can directly kill virus-infected cells. Helper T cells also play a role by stimulating both the humoral and cell-mediated responses.
4811102PCR consist denaturation—->Annealing—->Extension( not ligation)
4711127Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions involve IgE antibodies. They are responsible for immediate allergic reactions, such as those to pollen or peanuts.
Type 2 hypersensitivity reactions involve IgG and IgM antibodies. They are responsible for reactions against cells and tissues, such as in autoimmune diseases.
Type 3 hypersensitivity reactions also involve IgG and IgM antibodies. They are responsible for immune complex diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Type 4 hypersensitivity reactions do not involve antibodies. Instead, they are T-cell mediated reactions, such as in contact dermatitis and transplant rejection.
4611081Dextran is a heteropolysaccharide. Agarose and glycogen are homopolysaccharides.
4511118The distance between each turn in the helical strand of DNA is approximately 3.4 nanometers or 34 angstroms.
44111521. Statement I and Statement II are correct
Statement 1 is correct. The Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens does contain genes for the biosynthesis of plant hormones, specifically auxins and cytokinins. These hormones contribute to the formation of crown gall tumors in plants.
The correct statement is: The virulence (vir) genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which are responsible for the transfer of T-DNA, are located on a helper plasmid during the development of a binary vector system for plant transformation.
4311143The correct order of steps in anaerobic digestion is: Hydrolysis, Acidogenesis, Acetogenesis, and Methanogenesis.
1. Hydrolysis: In this first step, complex organic materials are broken down into simpler soluble organic compounds. This is done by hydrolytic bacteria, which use enzymes to break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into amino acids, fatty acids, and sugars.
2. Acidogenesis: The soluble compounds produced in hydrolysis are further broken down into volatile fatty acids, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and other byproducts. This is done by acidogenic bacteria.
3. Acetogenesis: In this step, the products of acidogenesis are converted into acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. This is done by acetogenic bacteria.
4. Methanogenesis: This is the final step where methanogenic bacteria convert the acetic acid and gases from the previous step into methane and carbon dioxide. This is the step that produces the biogas that is the main goal of anaerobic digestion.
4211124Trihydroxypropane is commonly known as glycerol.
1. Oxidising smog 1. Reducing smog
2. formed by ozone and nitrogen oxide 2. Contained pollutant like SO2
(oxidising agent) due to vehicles and
particulate matter,Sulphur rich
traffic, fossil fuel. fossil fuel (reducing agent).
3. Seen in warm and sunny climates 3. Seen in cooler, damp climates.
4. reactions driven by sunlight 4. Associated with industrial areas
5. also known as summer smog 5. also known as gray smog
correct option 2
4011094A gene whose expression helps to identify transformed cells is known as a Selectable Marker.
3911071The group of excitatory neurotransmitters includes 3. glutamate, acetylcholine, and serotonin.
3811117The process that involves the formation of nitrate from ammonia is called nitrification. This is a two-step process carried out by different types of bacteria in the soil. First, ammonia is converted to nitrite by bacteria such as Nitrosomonas. Then, other bacteria, such as Nitrobacter, convert nitrite to nitrate.
3711080The desirable characteristic in a primer for PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is minimal complementarity between reverse and forward primers. This is important to prevent the primers from binding to each other (forming primer dimers), which can interfere with the PCR process. The other options are not desirable: primers should not be more than 50 nucleotides in length (typically 18-28 nucleotides is optimal), should not have secondary structures such as hairpins, and should not have sequences with stretches of identical single nucleotides as these can lead to non-specific binding.
3611123The most abundant protein in the atmosphere is RuBisCO (Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase).
3511074Huntington’s disease is a dominant genetic trait in humans. This means that an individual only needs one copy of the mutated gene from either parent to develop the disease.
3411130A humanized antibody is a type of monoclonal antibody that is engineered to be more similar to natural human antibodies. In a humanized antibody, the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) are typically derived from a non-human species, such as a mouse, while the remaining regions of the antibody (the constant regions and the framework regions of the variable domains) are derived from a human antibody. This design minimizes potential immune responses against the antibody when used in humans, while still retaining the specificity of the original non-human antibody.
3311133The substance released in response to a virus infection is termed as Interferon.
3211121If the product P is at a lower internal energy level than the substrate, then the reaction is exothermic. This is because energy is released during the reaction.
3111106The amino acids that contribute to the sulfur content in proteins are cysteine and methionine.
30111042. the RER involved in the synthesis of protein that can be inserted into cell membranes or can be released outside
2911159Baculovirus expression systems are best suited for expressing large amounts of glycosylated proteins. This is because baculoviruses infect insect cells, which have the machinery necessary for post-translational modifications like glycosylation. E. coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Lambda phage lack this capability.
2811073The statement In vitro germination and development is very slow in orchids” is not true. With the right conditions and care, in vitro germination and development of orchids can be relatively fast.
2711137Depletion of ozone by Aspergillus Niger is not an example of bioremediation
2611064Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium known for its high yield of ethanol production.
2511147Retroviruses, such as HIV, make use of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, also known as reverse transcriptase, during replication. This enzyme synthesizes a DNA molecule from an RNA template.
2411115Isoelectric focusing does not use antibodies. It is a technique used in protein separation based on their isoelectric point.
2311111The Respiratory Quotient (RQ) is a measure of the ratio of the volume of CO2 produced to the volume of O2 consumed in respiration. For the complete oxidation of pyruvic acid (which is a 3-carbon compound), the RQ is 1. This is because for each molecule of pyruvic acid, one molecule of CO2 is produced and one molecule of O2 is consumed.
22111071. DNA replication occur in semiconservative fashion
2111093In the context of drug discovery, the term “log P” refers to the partition coefficient of a drug between octanol and water. It is a measure of the drug’s lipophilicity, which influences its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the body. In the Lipinski’s Rule of Five, a log P value of less than 5 is one of the criteria for a compound to be considered drug-like.
2011091EST stands for Expressed Sequence Tag. It is a short part of a DNA sequence that has been transcribed into RNA. ESTs are useful in locating and mapping genes within a genome.
1911160PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) can be used for cell line authentication. It is a technique used to amplify a specific DNA sequence, which can help identify and authenticate a cell line.
Cell line authentication can be performed using several methods, including Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling, karyotyping, and isoenzyme analysis. Serotyping is not typically used for cell line authentication, as it is more commonly used to classify and identify microorganisms, particularly bacteria and viruses.
18110694. A-IV, B-III, C-II, D-I
1711125The inner wall of a pollen grain is made up of a layer called the intine. The intine is primarily composed of cellulose and pectin.
1611098The isoelectric point (pI) of a protein is particularly useful in ion exchange chromatography. This technique separates proteins based on their net charge, which is determined by the pH of the solution and the protein’s pI. At a pH equal to the protein’s pI, the protein will have no net charge and will not bind to the ion exchange resin, allowing it to be eluted from the column.
1511086Symptoms of AIDS, which is the final stage of HIV infection, usually appear when the immune system has been severely damaged (mainly a large number of T lymphocyte)s. This typically occurs in the third stage of HIV infection, also known as symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS.
1411134The least abundant immunoglobulin class in a normal human body is IgE.
1311135The ELISpot assay is typically used to determine the frequency of interferon gamma producing cells in a blood sample. This technique is specifically designed to measure the frequency of cytokine-producing cells at the single-cell level.
1211083Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is not a PCR-based method. RFLP is a technique in which organisms may be differentiated by analysis of patterns derived from cleavage of their DNA. It involves the digestion of DNA samples with a specific restriction enzyme and then separation of the digested fragments by gel electrophoresis. On the other hand, Selective Amplification of Microsatellite Polymorphic Loci, Taq Site Amplification, and Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA are all PCR-based methods. They all involve the amplification of DNA via the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), which is a method widely used in molecular biology to make several copies of a specific DNA segment.
11111461. Dengue virus
1011096The A260/A280 ratio is a common method used to assess the purity of DNA. The absorbance of a DNA sample is measured at two different wavelengths: 260 nm and 280 nm. The ratio of these two measurements is then calculated. If the DNA is pure, this ratio should be approximately 1.8. If the ratio is significantly lower or higher, it suggests that there may be impurities in the DNA sample.
911110The aerobic catabolism of glucose would yield the maximum number of ATP per gram of the substrate consumed. This is because glucose, a six-carbon sugar, can be fully oxidized in the process of cellular respiration, which includes glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. This process can generate up to 36-38 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose, which is more ATP per gram than the other substrates listed.
811103A reaction can take place spontaneously only if G is negative
711158The first clinical use of gene therapy was done for the treatment of a genetic disorder called Adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADD).
611128The IgG and IgM antibodies are used by immune complexes for complement activation.
511132The BCG vaccine is an example of a live attenuated vaccine. It is used to protect against tuberculosis. The vaccine contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, a cousin of M. tuberculosis, which stimulates the immune system to fight against the disease.
411156The condition that would generally be more conducive for the production of roots from callus tissue of plants under in vitro conditions is a higher auxin to cytokinin ratio. Auxins are a type of plant hormone that promotes root formation, while cytokinins promote shoot formation. Therefore, a higher ratio of auxins to cytokinins would favor root production.
311136Effluent characteristic is not a part of the mandatory design consideration of a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) system. The other three – staging of the RBC units, secondary clarifier design loading criteria, and rotation speed – are all important considerations in the design of an RBC system.
211072The matching of the retrotransposon categories from List One to the examples in List Two would be as follows:
1. LTR Autonomous: Copia
2. Non-LTR Autonomous: I Factor
3. LTR Non-Autonomous: Dasheng
4. Non-LTR Non-Autonomous: Alu
111062Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is an analytical technique, not a preparative one. It’s used to identify compounds, check the purity of a sample, or monitor the progress of a reaction, but it’s not designed to purify or recover large quantities of a substance. In the case of protein purification after fermentation, techniques like centrifugation, filtration, or various types of chromatography (like size-exclusion, ion-exchange, or affinity chromatography) would be used instead. These methods can handle larger volumes and are designed to separate and purify proteins based on their specific properties.

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